Kitab Jarh Wa Ta Dil Pdf Download Free
Al-Jarḥ wa l-taʿdīl (Arabic: الجَرح و التَعدیل) or criticism and praise is a branch of, and a terminology in, hadith sciences concerning the evaluation and criteria of the reliability and unreliability of the transmitters of hadiths, and consequently, the acceptance or rejection of those hadiths. Understanding the meanings of the Qur'an and the tradition, which is obtained via reliable hadiths, depends on jarh and ta'dil, because the assessment of the reliability of the transmitters of hadiths is required for knowing reliable and unreliable hadiths.
kitab jarh wa ta dil pdf download
In the terminology of hadith sciences, "majruh" (the object adjective form) is an adjective predicated of a narrator who is not righteous, and so, his or her transmission cannot be acted upon. But in the science of rijal, "jarh" means to criticize the righteousness or accuracy of a transmitter of hadiths or both, such that his or her hadith is considered as unacceptable.
Jarh and ta'dil are either succinct and vague or elaborated. In the former case, the person who expresses jarh or ta'dil does so in outline and in general terms; for example, by saying that such and such a person is reliable (الثقه, al-thiqa), truthful, liar, or accused of wrong doings (المتهم, al-muttaham), and in the latter case, the reason for jarh or ta'dil is clearly elaborated as well.
There are discussions in books of diraya regarding the credibility of these two types of jarh and ta'dil. There are seven views about this. The popular view among the Shi'as and the Sunnis is that a general, succinct ta'dil is acceptable, but jarh cannot be accepted unless its reasons are elaborated.
Words of jarh and ta'dil are either simple terms such as reliable, "truthful" (الصدوق, al-saduq), "well-reputed" (الوجه, al-wajh), or complex terms such as having "appropriate hadith" (صالح الحدیث, salih al-hadith), "bad in memorizing" (سیّئ الحفظ, sayyi' al-hifz), and with unknown or "denied hadith" (منکر الحدیث, munkar al-hadith).
Phrases of jarh and ta'dil are sentences used to express jarh or ta'dil of a transmitter of hadiths, such as "yuktab hadithuh" (his hadith is written), or "yunzar fih" (there are considerations about him), and the like.
According to Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani, there are 12 levels of jarh and ta'dil. His classification was widely accepted by scholars of hadith and rijal. In this classification, 6 groups of transmitters of hadiths are said to be in different levels of ta'dil or praise, and 6 groups of them are said to be in levels of jarh or criticism.
Conditions of adjudicators of jarh and ta'dil include righteousness, accuracy, and carefulness, as well as being knowledgeable of the grounds of jarh and ta'dil. These can be considered as the main conditions of an adjudicator of jarh and ta'dil. On the contrary, being a male or not being a slave are not essential conditions of such an adjudicator. A woman or a slave who is knowledgeable of the principles of jarh and ta'dil can also be trusted. An adjudicator of jarh and ta'dil should make verdicts on the basis of the views of experts; that is, his or her verdicts should not be baseless, and they should not tend to go to extreme positions.
Jarh wa Ta'deel (Arabic: الجرح وتعديل) is two sciences: the science of jarh (criticizing) and of ta'deel (praising). The science of jarh is an independent science and this refutes the false minhaj of mentioning the good with the bad. The science of jarh is an independent science, and for this reason many of the Imams wrote books with just jarh (criticizing) in them.
Finally imam al-Bukhari further is the auhor of several other books on the topic like his small history (a biography collection of the sahaba) and middle history (starts with the hijarh to habashah) the small book on weak narrators (ad-Do'afaa' as-Saghir) and the great book on weak narrators (ad-Do'afaa' al-Kabeer/al-Kabir).
Kitab-kitab semacam ini sangat banyak dan bermacam-macam. Ada yang menjelaskan perawi tsiqah; ada juga yang menjelaskan perawi dlaif yang cacat; dan ada juga yang menjelaskan keduanya, baik perawi yang tsiqah maupun yang dlaif. Dari sisi lain, sebagian kitab-kitab itu ada yang bersifat umum menyebutkan para perawi hadits tanpa memperhatikan lagi rijal kitabnya, atau kitab-kitab tertentu dari kitab-kitab hadits. Tapi ada pula yang khusus memuat biografi para perawi kitab tertentu dari kitab-kitab hadit.